Biology 122 Course Outcomes

Competencies for Biology 122 Anatomy and Function II - Mark Eberle


  • Describe the nervous system's organization. Compare and contrast sympathetic and parasymphathetic functions.
  • Describe neurons and impulses. Define depolarization and repolarization. Explain why large doses of potassium can stop the heart.
  • Describe myelin and its functions. Compare and contrast gray and white matter.
  • Identify cerebral lobes and their dividing sulci. Compare right and left hemisphere specializations. Identify the corpus callosum and explain its role.
  • Identify and describe the functions of different areas of the cortex.
  • Describe the location and function of basal nuclei. Explain the pathology of Huntington's and Parkinson's diseases.
  • Identify the four ventricles. Trace the circulation of cerebrospinal fluid. Explain the pathology of hydrocephaly.
  • Describe the location and functions of the hypothalamus, medulla, and cerebellum.
  • List the meningeal layers. Explain lumbar punctures.
  • Define hemiplegia, paraplegia and quadraplegia.
  • Describe and explain the pathology of schizophrenia.


  • Describe external eye structures, including extrinsic muscles, lacrimal glands, nasolacrimal duct and conjunctiva.
  • Describe the cornea and the circulation of aqueous humor. Explain the pathology of glaucoma.
  • Describe the iris and its control by the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions. Notice that animals have different pupil shapes that fit their niches.
  • Describe accommodation by the lens. Explain the pathology of cataracts.
  • Describe the vitreous humor, retina and choroids.
  • Compare and contrast rods and cones. Identify the retina's fovea centralis, macula lutea and optic disk. Explain the pathology of red-green color blindness, and macular degeneration.
  • Explain how the tapetum lucidum helps nocturnal animals see in dim light.
  • Explain how binocular vision provides depth perception.
  • Explain the pathology of myopia, hyperopia, presbyopia, astigmatism, strabismus, and amblyopia.
  • Appreciate that vision is a brain function more than an eye function.


  • Describe the outer and middle ears, including how vibrations are transmitted through them. Explain the pathology of otitis media and conductive deafness.
  • Describe how vibrations are converted to impulses in the cochlea. Explain the pathology of sensorineural deafness and tinnitis.
  • Define static equilibrium and how it is sensed in the vestibule.
  • Define dynamic equilibrium and how it is sensed in semicircular canals. Define nystagmus. Explain the pathology of motion sickness.


  • Describe the male reproductive tract and semen production. Describe sperm anatomy. Explain the pathology of prostate hyperplasia. State the advantages of vasectomy over tubal ligation.
  • Describe egg maturation and ovulation, and the hormones responsible. Define menopause, fraternal twins, identical twins.
  • Describe the roles of fallopian tubes, uterus and cervix. Describe the uterine cycle including the hormones responsible.
  • Describe the vagina and external genitali, and their roles in preventing infection of the female tract.
  • Discuss breast cancer.
  • Describe development of male and female reproductive tracts. Recognize that the female gender is the basic gender in mammals, and that males are females modified by testosterone.
  • Describe the major sexually transmitted diseases.
  • Describe the three trimesters of development. Explain the pathology of neural tube defects.
  • Describe embryonic membranes and the placenta.
  • Describe the stages of parturition. Define lactation, and state the hormones involved.


  • Define homologous chromosomes, dominant, recessive, genotype, phenotype, homozygous, heterozygous, allele.
  • Use Punnett squares to calculate phenotype probabilities.
  • Explain the pathology and genetics of cystic fibrosis, Tay-Sachs disease, sickle cell anemia, PKU, Huntington's disease, hemophilia, Down's syndrome, Turner's syndrome, and Klinefelter's syndrome.
  • Explain why inbreeding increases the risk of recessive disorders.


  • Describe the mouth's anatomy, including salivary glands, and the events of swallowing down to the stomach. Explain the pathology of heartburn and how to differentiate it from heart attack.
  • Identify the parts of the stomach, and explain its functions including production of intrinsic factor. Explain the pathology of ulcers, including the role of H. pylori.
  • Identify the parts of the small intestine, and explain its functions. Describe how villi and microvilli increase its surface. Explain the pathology of Crohn's disease.
  • Identify the parts of the large intestine, and explain its functions. Explain diarrhea and constipation. Describe the defecation reflex. State the benefits of normal intestinal flora.
  • Describe the pancreas and its functions. Explain why pancreatitis is so dangerous.
  • List the functions of the liver. Explain the signs and symptoms of liver disease including jaundice and ascites. Define hepatitis and cirrhosis 44. Describe the gallbladder's function. Explain the pathology of gall stones.
  • Describe the pathology of appendicitis, diverticulosis, hiatial hernia, hemorrhoids, lactose intolerance, and celiac disease.


  • List the functions of the kidneys. Explain what causes death from kidney failure.
  • Describe filtration, re-absorption and secretion.
  • Trace the route of urine through the kidneys and then out of the body.
  • Describe the nephron, and explain the functions of its parts.
  • Describe the action of anti-diuretic hormone.
  • Describe the signs and symptoms of kidney failure. List causes of kidney failure. Describe dialysis.


  • Describe the chain of command in the endocrine system, and the role of negative feedback.
  • Describe the function of growth hormone. Explain the pathology of pituitary dwarfism, gigantism and acromegaly.
  • Describe the function of thyroxin. Explain the pathology of iodine deficiency goiter, cretinism, Grave's disease and Hashimoto's thyroiditis.
  • Describe the functions of cortisol. Explain the pathology of Cushing's disease.
  • Describe the function of insulin. Explain the pathology of Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes mellitus. List the signs and symptoms of diabetes. Compare insulin shock and diabetic coma.