Wildland Fire FuelsManagement
WILDLAND FIRE SCIENCE I
Course focuses on the effects of Wildland Fire Policy, currentfire suppression strategies and tactics; weather, topography, fuelmodels and how each interacts to effect fire behavior. Additionaltopics include the Wildland fire environment as it relates tosituational awareness and personal safety. This class is anoverview of modern Wildland firefighting with an emphasis onunderstanding and applying fireline safety. This course cannot bechallenged, but will be waived for those with proof of Wildlandfire single resource status. Credits: 2 Lecture: 1 Lab: 3
- Identify major U.S. wildfires and how they effected and shapedU.S. Fire Policy.
- Understand current Wildland fire policy.
- Working knowledge of basic Wildland fire physics.
- Identify and describe common fuel types.
- Understand, discuss and have a working knowledge of currentfireline safety practices.
- Understand and describe the National Incident Management System(NIMS) its development and current configuration.
- Handtool use and maintenance.
- Crew composition, structure and management.
- Understand basic wildfire tactics, size-up, initial attack,mop-up, patrol. Includes mechanized and aerial attack.
- Identify and understand principals of defensible space as itapplies to the western states Wildland/urban interface.
- Understand large fire support, both operational andlogistical.
- Understand and apply principals of Wildland fire situationalawareness through review and study of past near misses and firelinefatalities. (class project)
An introduction to the entire discipline of forestry, includingthe history of forest use and management, North American forestregions, forest ecology, mensuration and management, forestproducts and the importance of forest resources other than woodfiber. Course also provides overview of state, regional and localemployment opportunities. Credits: 4 Lecture: 3 Lab: 3
Course emphasizes the recognition and effects of diseases,insects and mammals affecting forest ecosystems in the PacificNorthwest. Course will examine the role of insects, diseases andanimals in forest functioning, health and management, as well ascontrol measures and integrated pest management. Lab work islargely field-based and emphasizes identification of damagingforest insects and diseases common in Oregon. Credits:3 Lecture: 2 Lab: 3
- Ability to identify major forest pests in the PacificNorthwest.
- Understanding of the ecological role of insects and diseasesin ecosystem functioning.
- Understanding silvicultural, biological, chemical, andmechanical means available for control and management of forestpathogens.
- Familiarity with the process of integrated pest management andits role in ecosystem management.
APPLIED FOREST ECOLOGY
Course applies principles of forest ecology to develop a basicunderstanding of forest stand dynamics and silviculturalprinciples. Emphasis is placed on stand development, regenerationand stand analysis. Students will develop a practical understandingof stand establishment, maintenance and stand datacollection. Credits: 3 Lecture: 2 Lab:3
SILVICULTURE AND HARVESTING PROCESSES
Emphasizes interrelated systems of silviculture and harvesting.Discussions provide an understanding of the various treatments andharvesting systems applied to forest stands to meet variousmanagement objectives for forest ecosystems. Topics include forestregeneration processes and intermediate operations (thinning,pruning, etc.) and different methods of timber harvest. Observationand data collection will be performed in lab sections. Writtenreports interpreting prescriptions and harvest systems will berequired. Credits: 5 Lecture: 3 Lab: 6
- Demonstrate an understanding of the vocabulary of harvestingsystems to include mechanical-based, ground-based, cable-based andaerial-based harvesting systems.
- Demonstrate an understanding of silvicultural terms andconcepts.
- Explain the function of mechanical, traditional ground-based,cable and aerial yarding systems.
- Explain timber harvesting as a system.
- Identify different forest treatment types.
- Write summaries and reports that demonstrate an understandingof silvicultural constraints as they relate to harvesting.
- Be able to identify safety concerns and constraints associatedwith timber harvest and treatments.
- Demonstrate a familiarity of forest road layout and design,culvert design.
- Demonstrate an understanding of different silviculture andharvesting related software packages.
- Identify the legal, environmental, economic and socialconstraints involved with timber harvesting and forestmanagement.
FIRE ECOLOGY AND EFFECTS
Discusses the role of fire in Pacific Northwestecosystems. Identifies effects on flora, fauna, soils, water;fire and cultural/visual resource management; fire and insectinteractions. Covers the effects of fire on different forestand range ecosystems. Credits: 3 Lecture: 2Lab: 3
WILDLAND FIRE SCIENCE II
A study of hazardous fuel management and treatment practices.Incorporates current fuel measurement and analysis techniques, firebehavior prediction models and hazardous Wildland fuel mitigationmethods. Credits: 2 Lecture: 1 Lab: 3
- Understand major events that shaped current U.S. fuelmanagement policy
- Identify large fire events in Central Oregon and be able todiscuss vegetation treatment options that would mitigate firebehavior.
- Understand and be able to discuss BD/KV laws, The NFP(1995-2004), Prescribed Fire Policy.
- Apply technical knowledge to calculate surface fuel loadingutilizing Planar Intersect Sampling Method.
- Identify the Fire Behavior Fuel models/ utilize photo seriesto predict loading.
- Utilize fuel and fire behavior models to predict fire behaviorbased on treatment options, (BEHAVE PLUS)(FARSITE)
- Be able to discuss central Oregon fire ecology.
- Have the knowledge and skill to develop a prescribed fireplan.
- Be able to apply weather information and remote weathersensing information to project development.
- Understand the interdisciplinary team process, the NationalEnvironmental Policy Act, a Decision Notice, Finding of NoSignificant Impact notice, and forest standards and guides as theyapply to project development.
- Have the ability to write a fuel treatment plan, a prescribedfire plan and conduct an operation briefing.
Covers practical use of aerial photographs including photointerpretation, navigation, scale, area and distance determination,corner search, basic type-mapping and GPS application.Prerequisite: FE 210B. Credits: 3 Lecture:2 Lab: 3
Determine the representative fractionof a vertical air photo.
Demonstrate the mathematicalrelationships between lens focal length, camera altitude, groundelevation, photo distance, ground distance, representativefraction, and photo scale reciprocal.
Describe the characteristics of blackand white, color, and infrared films.
Determine tree heights from stereopairs of air photos.
Write a plan for an aerial photoflight.
Determine the azimuth of air photobaselines and use to determine azimuths of flight lines and otherlines on air photos.
Navigate from point to point usingair photos.
Determine ground areas from verticalair photos.
Interpret features and land usepatterns using air photos.
Utilize the vocabulary of air photointerpretation and photogrammetry.
Students learn fundamentals of measuring and quantifying naturalresources including cruising and scaling timber, quantifyingwildlife and fisheries habitat, measuring and estimating forageproduction for wildlife and livestock, and sampling wildlifepopulations. Also introduces basic statistical concepts and theirapplications in resource management. Recommended prerequisite: MTH85. Concurrent enrollment in MTH 86 recommended. Instructorapproval required.
Credits: 4 Lecture: 2.5 Lab: 4.5
- Ability to measure tree height and diameter.
- Ability to determine tree volume using single and multipleentry volume tables.
- Ability to scale logs and determine gross volume using boardfoot log rules and cubic foot formulas.
- Understanding of fixed plot and variable plot cruiselayouts.
- Be able to lay out and conduct a simple fixed or variable plotcruise, and determine gross volume.
- Be able to conduct regeneration surveys for trees andshrubs.
- Be able to measure wildlife habitat attributes such as shruband canopy cover, forage availability, and hiding cover.
- Be able to calculate wildlife population parameters such assex ratio and density from trapping or observation data.
- Understanding of basic terms and procedures of statisticalsampling, such as population, variables, bias, accuracy, andprecision.
- Be able to calculate mean, standard deviation, standard errorof the mean, and construct a confidence interval about the mean forsimple data sets.
MAP, COMPASS AND GPS
Teaches the basic skills of field and forest navigation withcompass and GPS. Competency obtained in pacing, paper and computermap use, compass and clinometers reading.
Credits: 3 Lecture: 2 Lab: 3
- Use a hand compass and a staff compass to determine bearingsand azimuths, both true and magnetic.
- Convert between bearings and azimuths and between true andmagnetic directions.
- Use a clinometer or Abney to measure vertical angels and thencorrect slope distance to horizontal distance using basictrigonometry.
- Measure distance by pacing and GPS use.
- Know the basic design and utilization of the Public LandSurvey.
- Identify all symbols, grids, Public Land Survey notation, andmarginal information on a U.S.G.S. 7' series map.
- Determine land area from a map using a dot grid and a polarplanimeter.
- Draw a map to scale using standard format and symbols.
- Determine position by recreational GPS.
- Use MapTech Terrain Navigator to obtain locations,coordinates, distance, direction, elevation and GPS tracks androutes.
Course is designed to provide students with an overview of basicplant structure and function and to introduce students tofunctioning of forest ecosystems. Class will examine the physicalenvironment and how it affects growth and distribution of organismsand ecological processes. Course concludes with an examination ofcommunities, disturbance and succession.
Credits: 3 Lecture: 2 Lab: 3
- Understanding of basic concepts in botany, including plantstructure and function.
- Ability to identify the major components of a forestecosystem.
- Familiarity with ecosystem functions and processes, withspecial emphasis on forest ecosystems.
- Understanding of basic disturbance ecology.
- Understanding of basic concepts in forest succession.
Covers identification, classification and recognition of commontrees and shrubs found in Oregon habitat types and major NorthAmerican tree species. Emphasizes botanical nomenclature and properidentification using plant keys and field characteristics. Allclasses for this course are conducted in the field. Credits:2 Lab: 6
Covers identification, classification and distribution of plantcommunities (tree, shrub, forb and grass) found within Oregon andmajor North American plan communities. This class covers in lectureformat the structure and function of the primary organs and tissuesthat comprise woody plants. This course complements FOR 241A. Credits: 3 Lecture: 3
- The student will use appropriate terminology to describe leafand plant parts.
- The student will be able to describe the different forestregions of the U.S.
- The student will be able to list the major tree species ofeach forest region.
- The student will be able to describe the major vegetationtypes of Oregon.
- The student will be able to describe the biologicalclassification system.
CONSERVATION OF NATURAL RESOURCES
Examines current utilization and issues surrounding naturalresources availability and management, as well as the effect ofhuman population on resource use and the environment. Includescritical analysis of sustainable development and resource useconcepts, including principles of conservation andmanagement. Emphasis placed on current issues. Two-day fieldtrip required. Prerequisite: WR 121. Credits:3 Lecture: 2 Lab: 3
- Be able to define or distinguish between natural, renewable,non-renewable, and perpetual resources.
- Be able to discuss human population growth in developed andless developed countries.
- Understanding of the effects of human populations on use ofnatural resources.
- Be able to discuss conflicts in forest management and possiblealternatives to traditional sources of forest products.
- Understanding of basic issues in endangered speciesconservation and management.
- Be able to discuss issues related to resource conservation inthe Columbia basin, with a focus on salmonids.
- Understanding of basic issues in water conservation andmanagement, both locally and globally.
- Understanding of solid waste issues in the United States andstrategies for management.
- Be able to work in small groups toward completion of projects,ranging from very minor to extensive (term project).
I-100 AND I-200 INCIDENT COMMAND SYSTEMS
Addresses the Incident Command Systems (ICS) organization, basicterminology, common responsibilities and principles. Provides afoundation upon which entry-level personnel can functionappropriately in the performance of incident-related duties. Credits: 3 Lecture: 3
- List the five major organizational activities within theIncident Command System and explain their primary functions.
- Give the titles, and explain the duties of Command and GeneralStaff members.
- Match organizational unit to appropriate Operations, Planning,Logistics or Finance Sections.
- Match supervisory titles with appropriate levels within theorganization.
- Describe what an Incident Action Plan is and how it is used atan incident.
- Describe how span of control functions within the incidentorganization and in the use of resources.
- Describe the common responsibilities (general instructions)associated with incident or event assignments.
- Describe several applications for the use of ICS.
Describe and explain the use of:
- Primary management functions.
- Management by Objectives.
- Unity and chain of command.
- Establishment and transfer of command.
- Organizational flexibility.
- Unified command.
- Span of control.
- Common terminology.
- Personnel accountability.
- Resources management.
- Integrated communications.
- The Incident Action Plan.
- Explain how the incident organization expands or contracts tomeet operational needs of the incident or event.
- Describe the use of Branches, Divisions, and Groups within theOperations Section, and provide supervisory titles associated witheach level.
- List the essential elements of information involved in transferof command.
- Match organizational positions with appropriate ICSsections.
- Describe an ICS organization appropriate to a small incidentusing an Incident Briefing form.
- Name each of the principal facilities used in conjunction withICS, and explain the purpose and use of each.
- Identify which facilities may be located together at anincident or event.
- Describe how the various incident facilities are used andmanaged to support an incident or event.
- Identify appropriate map symbols associated with incidentfacilities.
- Describe the need for proper incident resource management.
- Describe three ways of managing resources and the advantages ofeach.
- Explain the purpose of resource typing.
- Describe the three resource status conditions used at anincident and the purpose and limits associated with each.
- Explain how resource status is changed, how notification ofchanges is made, and how status is maintained at an incident orevent.
- List actions to be accomplished prior to leaving for anincident or event.
- List the steps involved at incident check-in.
- List major personal responsibilities at an incident orevent.
- List the major steps necessary in the incident or eventdemobilization process.
S-130, S-190 FIREFIGHTER TRAINING, INTRO TO FIREBEHAVIOR
Course trains new firefighters in basic firefighting skills andthe basic fire behavior factors that will aid them in safe andeffective control of Wildland fires. Human performance issues areaddressed and how those issues impact fireline job performance.Course also addresses human performance content as it relates tothe individual, including situation awareness, communication,decision making, risk management and teamwork skills. Desiredoutcome of this course is improved awareness of human performanceissues on the fireline so that individual firefighters canintegrate more effectively into teams/crews working in dynamic,high risk environments. Credits: 3 Lecture:3
- Discuss firefighter preparedness
- Demonstrate use of tools and equipment.
- Identify the firing devices.
- Demonstrate the use of water.
- Demonstrate the different suppression techniques.
- Demonstrate the ability to secure the control line.
- Demonstrate the ability to read and use maps.
- Discuss scouting, patrolling, and communicating.
- Demonstrate and discuss the Standards for Survival.
- Identify and discuss the three sides of the firetriangle.
- Identify the environmental factors of Wildland fire behaviorthat affect the start and spread of Wildland fire.
- Recognize situations that indicate problem or extreme Wildlandfire behavior.
L-180 HUMAN FACTORS-FIRELINE
Establishes an awareness of human performance issues and howthose issues can impact fireline job performance. Addresses humanperformance content that relates to the individual, includingsituation awareness, communication, decision making, riskmanagement and teamwork skills. Improves awareness of humanperformance issues on the fireline so that individual firefighterscan integrate more effectively into teams/crews working in dynamic,high-risk environments. Recommended prerequisites: WF 101, WF100. Credits: 1 Lecture: 1
- Identify existing standard communication procedures andopportunities to initiate standard communication procedures in thefireline work environment.
- Describe the 5 communications responsibilities.
- Identify hazardous attitude barriers and their impacts onsituation awareness.
- Identify stress reaction barriers and their impacts onsituation awareness.
- Describe the process of preplanning and its role in decisionmaking.
- Describe the situation awareness self-check tool and its rolein decision making.
- Describe the relationship between teamwork and the humanperformance concepts discussed in the previous lessons.
S-211 PORTABLE PUMPS
Provides practical knowledge and application skills of portablepump operations. Recommended prerequisite: WF 100, WF101. Credits: 2 Lecture: 2
- Identify various types of portable pumps, equipment and hoselays.
- Describe and install various methods of using water to controlwildfires.
- Perform necessary maintenance on portable pumps.
S-215 FIRE OPERATIONS IN THE URBANINTERFACE
Covers size-up, initial strategy and action plan, structuretriage, tactics, action plan assessment, public relations andfollow-up, and safety. Recommended prerequisites: WF 100, WF101.
Credits: 3 Lecture: 3
- Describe the human and environmental factors in the interfacethat affect critical decision making and require situationalawareness for firefighter safety.
- Describe items to consider when sizing-up an interface fire,prior to and after arriving at the scene and when sizing-upresources needed.
- List the three incident priorities and describe the threeoperational modes.
- List the three structure triage categories.
- List five factors upon which to base structure triagedecisions and give three examples of each.
- List four conditions that may indicate a structure cannot besaved.
- List initial operations to be accomplished upon arrival at anincident or assigned area and describe their importance tofirefighting actions.
- Describe four considerations in engine access and positioningin structure defense.
- List three situations in which burning out may be necessary instructure defense and describe who makes the decision to conduct afiring operation.
- Given an incident action plan and scenario, demonstrate how toproperly update the plan when the scenario changes.
- List four steps that should be completed before leaving anarea involved in an interface fire.
- List four factors to be considered in dealing with the publicand three factors to be considered in dealing with the media oninterface fires.
- Describe in order of priority three actions that can be takenif a defensive position is threatened by the fire and becomesunsafe.
S-230 CREW BOSS
Designed to produce student proficiency in the performance ofduties associated with the single resource boss position frominitial dispatch through demobilization to the home unit. Topicsinclude: operational leadership, preparation and mobilization,assignment preparation, risk management, entrapment avoidance,safety and tactics, offline duties, demobilization and postincident responsibilities. Credits: 3 Lecture: 3
- Describe crew boss responsibilities prior to and duringmobilization, on the incident, and during demobilization.
- Identify the hazards and risks on various incidents anddescribe how to mitigate them.
- Describe tactics which are appropriate to various Wildlandfire situations and procedures to implement them through the chainof command.
S-234 IGNITION OPERATIONS
Entry level course providing training in the functional rolesand responsibilities connected with firing operations. Coursecovers planning, ignition procedures and techniques, and equipmentapplicable to Wildland and prescribed fire. It also addresses therole of ignition specialist or firing boss as the organizationmanages escalation from a non-complex to a complex fire situation.NOTE: Course is not intended to qualify or certify any personnel inthe use or transport of any firing device. It is to provide thepotential firing boss a description of available equipment and therequirements specific to each such device. Credits:3 Lecture: 3
- Describe the role and responsibility of the single resourceboss (FIRB) and prescribed fire ignition specialist (RXI2).
- Identify resources needed to successfully conduct and ignitionoperation for a Wildland fire or prescribed fire.
- Develop an ignition plan demonstrating the knowledge of firebehavior, firing techniques, holding, and hazards.
- Given a scenario, implement an ignition operation withemphasis on safety, coordination, communications, andevaluation.
S-260 INTERAGENCY INCIDENT BUSINESSMANAGEMENT
Covers the following incident business management practices:rules of conduct for incident assignments, recruitment of casuals,pay provisions, timekeeping, commissary, travel compensation forinjury, acquisition of equipment, supplies, services, propertymanagement, types and the necessity of cooperation agreements,reporting, investigating, and documenting accidents andclaims. Concurrent enrollment in WF 100, WF 101. Credits: 2 Lecture: 2
- Rules of conduct for incident assignments.
- Recruitment of casuals.
- Pay provisions, timekeeping, commissary, and travel.
- Acquisition of equipment, supplies, and services fromappropriate sources.
- Property management.
- Types and the necessity of cooperative agreements.
- Reporting, investigating, and documenting accidents andclaims.
S-270 BASIC AIR OPERATIONS
Covers aircraft types and capabilities, aviation management andsafety, tactical and logistical uses of aircraft, and requirementsfor helicopter take-off and landing areas. Recommendedprerequisites: WR 131, WF 134. Credits: 2 Lecture: 2
- Describe the ICS criteria for typing aircraft.
- Describe safety procedures to be followed while flying in orworking with agency aircraft.
- Describe how density altitude, ground effect, andtranslational lift affect aircraft performance.
- Describe pilot and aircraft certification procedures.
- Describe the importance of flight planning and flightfollowing.
- Describe correct procedures for loading cargo, transportingpassengers, and emergency landing.
- Describe correct procedures for reporting aviationmishaps.
- Describe tactical and logistical uses of aircraft.
- Describe safety procedure to be followed by ground personnelduring water and retardant drops.
- Describe standard target description techniques for directingpilots and indicators of effective water and retardant drops.
- Describe specifications and safety requirements for locatingand constructing helispots.
Training course designed as a self-assessment opportunity forindividuals preparing to step into a leadership role. There is oneday of classroom instruction followed by a day in the field withsmall teams of students working through a series of problem solvingevents (Field Leadership Assessment Course). Topic areas include:leadership values and principles; transition challenges for newleaders; situational leadership; team cohesion factors; ethicaldecision-making.
Credits: 2 Lecture: 2
- Students will demonstrate an understanding of fundamentalleadership principles.
- Students will assess their individual traits and motivationfor entering into a leadership role.
S-290 INTERMEDIATE WILDFIRE BEHAVIOR
Meets training requirements to work in the operations section ofthe Incident Command system. Instructs firefighters how torecognize the numerous factors relating to fuels, topography andweather which affect fire behavior. Recommendedprerequisites: WR 131, WF 260, WF 134.
Credits: 3 Lecture: 3
- Determine basic input date of terrain, fuels, and weatherrequired for understanding Wildland fire behavior for various timesof the day or night.
- Describe the causes of extreme fire behavior conditions(spotting, crowning, firewhirls) developing due to weather, fuels,and/or topography.
- Assess fireline data and fire behavior estimations, andidentify areas where fire suppression limitations exist.
- Describe the conditions which contribute to the occurrence ofplume-dominated and wind-driven fires.
- Describe the combining influences that affect basic Wildlandfire behavior and should be monitored continuously.
- List the seven (7) Wildland fire environment factors whichmust continuously be monitored, and describe indicators of changefor each factor.
S-390 FIRE BEHAVIOR CALCULATION
Course is designed to develop knowledge and skills required foreffective fire behavior prediction. Introduces fire behaviorcalculations by manual methods, using nomograms. Student will gainan understanding of the determinants of fire behavior throughstudying input (wind, slope, fuels, and fuel moisture). Studentsalso learn how to interpret fire behavior output. Local andregional environmental differences are stressed. Credits:2 Lecture: 2
1. Determine what input is needed for the surface firebehavior nomogram.
2. Perform fire behavior calculations of rate of spread,fireline intensity, flame length, area/perimeter growth, andmaximum spotting distance using a fire behavior processor.
3. Prepare a fire perimeter map showing head, flanks, andrear of the fire in hourly increments.
4. Based on predicted fire behavior, identify areas wherefire suppression limitations exist, and make recommendations forfireline location and safe control tactics including the use ofbackfiring and burning out.
5. Discuss applications of fire behavior predictions andrecognize when predictions may be different from the observedbehavior.